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--- BEGIN (CJK.INF VERSION 2.1 07/12/96) 185553 BYTES ---
CJK.INF Version 2.1 (July 12, 1996)

Copyright (C) 1995-1996 Ken Lunde. All Rights Reserved.

CJK is a registered trademark and service mark of The Research
  Libraries Group, Inc.

Online Companion to "Understanding Japanese Information Processing"
- ENGLISH: 1993, O'Reilly & Associates, Inc., ISBN 1-56592-043-0
- JAPANESE: 1995, SOFTBANK Corporation, ISBN 4-89052-708-7


	This online document provides information on CJK (that is,
Chinese, Japanese, and Korean) character set standards and encoding
systems. In short, it provides detailed information on how CJK text is
handled electronically. I am happy to share this information with
others, and I would appreciate any comments/feedback on its content.
The current version (master copy) of this document is maintained at:

  ftp://ftp.ora.com/pub/examples/nutshell/ujip/doc/cjk.inf

This file may also be obtained by contacting me directly using one of
the e-mail addresses listed in the CONTACT INFORMATION section.


TABLE OF CONTENTS

  VERSION HISTORY
  RESTRICTIONS
  CONTACT INFORMATION
  WHAT HAPPENED TO JAPAN.INF?
  DISCLAIMER
  CONVENTIONS
  INTRODUCTION
  PART 1: WHAT'S UP WITH UJIP?
  PART 2: CJK CHARACTER SET STANDARDS
    2.1: JAPANESE
      2.1.1: JIS X 0201-1976
      2.1.2: JIS X 0208-1990
      2.1.3: JIS X 0212-1990
      2.1.4: JIS X 0221-1995
      2.1.5: JIS X 0213-199X
      2.1.6: OBSOLETE STANDARDS
    2.2: CHINESE (PRC)
      2.2.1: GB 1988-89
      2.2.2: GB 2312-80
      2.2.3: GB 6345.1-86
      2.2.4: GB 7589-87
      2.2.5: GB 7590-87
      2.2.6: GB 8565.2-88
      2.2.7: GB/T 12345-90
      2.2.8: GB/T 13131-9X
      2.2.9: GB/T 13132-9X
      2.2.10: GB 13000.1-93
      2.2.11: ISO-IR-165:1992
      2.2.12: OBSOLETE STANDARDS
    2.3: CHINESE (TAIWAN)
      2.3.1: BIG FIVE
      2.3.2: CNS 11643-1992
      2.3.3: CNS 5205
      2.3.4: OBSOLETE STANDARDS
    2.4: KOREAN
      2.4.1: KS C 5636-1993
      2.4.2: KS C 5601-1992
      2.4.3: KS C 5657-1991
      2.4.4: GB 12052-89
      2.4.5: KS C 5700-1995
      2.4.6: OBSOLETE STANDARDS
    2.5: CJK
      2.5.1: ISO 10646-1:1993
      2.5.2: CCCII
      2.5.3: ANSI Z39.64-1989
    2.6: OTHER
      2.6.1: GB 8045-87
      2.6.2: TCVN-5773:1993
  PART 3: CJK ENCODING SYSTEMS
    3.1: 7-BIT ISO 2022 ENCODING
      3.1.1: CODE SPACE
      3.1.2: ISO-REGISTERED ESCAPE SEQUENCES
      3.1.3: ISO-2022-JP AND ISO-2022-JP-2
      3.1.4: ISO-2022-KR
      3.1.5: ISO-2022-CN AND ISO-2022-CN-EXT
    3.2: EUC ENCODING
      3.2.1: JAPANESE REPRESENTATION
      3.2.2: CHINESE (PRC) REPRESENTATION
      3.2.3: CHINESE (TAIWAN) REPRESENTATION
      3.2.4: KOREAN REPRESENTATION
    3.3: LOCALE-SPECIFIC ENCODINGS
      3.3.1: SHIFT-JIS
      3.3.2: HZ (HZ-GB-2312)
      3.3.3: zW
      3.3.4: BIG FIVE
      3.3.5: JOHAB
      3.3.6: N-BYTE HANGUL
      3.3.7: UCS-2
      3.3.8: UCS-4
      3.3.9: UTF-7
      3.3.10: UTF-8
      3.3.11: UTF-16
      3.3.12: ANSI Z39.64-1989
      3.3.13: BASE64
      3.3.14: IBM DBCS-HOST
      3.3.15: IBM DBCS-PC
      3.3.16: IBM DBCS-/TBCS-EUC
      3.3.17: UNIFIED HANGUL CODE
      3.3.18: TRON CODE
      3.3.19: GBK
    3.4: CJK CODE PAGES
  PART 4: CJK CHARACTER SET COMPATIBILITY ISSUES
    4.1: JAPANESE
    4.2: CHINESE (PRC)
    4.3: CHINESE (TAIWAN)
    4.4: KOREAN
    4.5: ISO 10646-1:1993
    4.6: UNICODE
    4.7: CODE CONVERSION TIPS
  PART 5: CJK-CAPABLE OPERATING SYSTEMS
    5.1: MS-DOS
    5.2: WINDOWS
    5.3: MACINTOSH
    5.4: UNIX AND X WINDOWS
    5.5: OTHERS
  PART 6: CJK TEXT AND INTERNET SERVICES
    6.1: ELECTRONIC MAIL
    6.2: USENET NEWS
    6.3: GOPHER
    6.4: WORLD-WIDE WEB
    6.5: FILE TRANSFER TIPS
  PART 7: CJK TEXT HANDLING SOFTWARE
    7.1: MULE
    7.2: CNPRINT
    7.3: MASS
    7.4: ADOBE TYPE MANAGER (ATM)
    7.5: MACINTOSH SOFTWARE
    7.6: MACBLUE TELNET
    7.7: CXTERM
    7.8: UW-DBM
    7.9: POSTSCRIPT
    7.10: NJWIN
  PART 8: CJK PROGRAMMING ISSUES
    8.1: C AND C++
    8.2: PERL
    8.3: JAVA
  A FINAL NOTE
  ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
  APPENDIX A: INFORMATION SOURCES
    A.1: USENET NEWSGROUPS AND MAILING LISTS
      A.1.1: USENET NEWSGROUPS
      A.1.2: MAILING LISTS
    A.2: INTERNET RESOURCES
      A.2.1: USEFUL FTP SITES
      A.2.2: USEFUL TELNET SITES
      A.2.3: USEFUL GOPHER SITES
      A.2.4: USEFUL WWW SITES
      A.2.5: USEFUL MAIL SERVERS
    A.3: OTHER RESOURCES
      A.3.1: BOOKS
      A.3.2: MAGAZINES
      A.3.3: JOURNALS
      A.3.4: RFCs
      A.3.5: FAQs


VERSION HISTORY

	The following is a complete listing of the earlier versions of
this document along with their release dates and sizes (in bytes):

  Document   Version  Release Date  Size
  ^^^^^^^^   ^^^^^^^  ^^^^^^^^^^^^  ^^^^
  JAPAN.INF  1.0      Unknown       Unknown
  JAPAN.INF  1.1      08/19/91      101,784
  JAPAN.INF  1.2      03/20/92      166,929 (JIS) or 165,639 (Shift-JIS/EUC)
  CJK.INF    1.0      06/09/95      103,985
  CJK.INF    1.1      06/12/95      112,771
  CJK.INF    1.2      06/14/95      125,275
  CJK.INF    1.3      06/16/95      130,069
  CJK.INF    1.4      06/19/95      142,543
  CJK.INF    1.5      06/22/95      146,064
  CJK.INF    1.6      06/29/95      150,882
  CJK.INF    1.7      08/15/95      153,772
  CJK.INF    1.8      09/11/95      157,295
  CJK.INF    1.9      12/18/95      170,698
  CJK.INF    2.0      03/12/96      175,973

With the release of this version, all of the above are now considered
obsolete. Also, note the three-year gap between the last installment
of JAPAN.INF and the first installment of CJK.INF -- I was writing
UJIP and my PhD dissertation during those three years. Ah, so much for
excuses...


RESTRICTIONS

	This document is provided free-of-charge to *anyone*, but no
person or company is permitted to modify, sell, or otherwise
distribute it for profit or other purposes. This document may be
bundled with commercial products only with the prior consent from the
author, and provided that it is not modified in any way whatsoever.
The point here is that I worked long and hard on this document so that
lots of fine folks and companies can benefit from its contents -- not
profit from it.


CONTACT INFORMATION

	I would enjoy hearing from readers of this document, even if
it is just to say "hello" or whatever. I can be contacted as follows:

  Ken Lunde
  Adobe Systems Incorporated
  1585 Charleston Road
  P.O. Box 7900
  Mountain View, CA 94039-7900 USA
  415-962-3866 (office phone)
  415-960-0886 (facsimile)
  lunde@adobe.com (preferred)
  lunde@ora.com or ujip@ora.com
  WWW Home Page: http://jasper.ora.com/lunde/

If you wonder what I do for my day job, read on.
	I have been working for Adobe Systems for over four years now
(before that I was a graduate student at UW-Madison), and my current
position is Project Manager, CJK Type Development.


WHAT HAPPENED TO JAPAN.INF?

	Put bluntly, JAPAN.INF died. It first evolved into my first
book entitled "Understanding Japanese Information Processing" (this
book is now into its second printing, and the Japanese translation was
just published). After my book came out, I did attempt to update
JAPAN.INF, but the effort felt a bit futile. I decided that something
fresh was necessary.
	JAPAN.INF also evolved into this document, which breaks the
Japanese barrier by providing similar information on Chinese and
Korean character sets and encodings. It fills the Chinese and Korean
gap, so to speak. My specialty (and hobby, believe it or not) is the
field of CJK character sets and encoding systems, so I felt that
shifting this document more towards those lines was appropriate use of
my (copious) free time (I wish there were more than 24 hours in a
day!). Besides, this document now becomes useful to a much broader
audience.


DISCLAIMER

	Ah yes, the ever popular disclaimer! Here's mine. Although I
list my address here at Adobe Systems Incorporated for contact
purposes, Adobe Systems does not endorse this document which I have
created, and have continued (and will continue) to update on a regular
basis (uh, yeah, I promise this time!). This document is a personal
endeavor to inform people of how CJK text can be handled on a variety
of platforms.


CONVENTIONS

	The notation that is used for detailing Internet resource
information, such as the Internet protocol type, site name, path, and
file follows the URL (Uniform Resource Locator) notation, namely:

  protocol://site-name/path/file

An example URL is as follows:

  ftp://ftp.ora.com/pub/examples/nutshell/ujip/00README

The protocol is FTP, the site-name is ftp.ora.com, the path is pub/
examples/nutshell/ujip/, and the file is 00README. Also note that this
same notation is used for invoking FTP on WWW (World Wide Web)
browsing software, such as Mosaic, Netscape, or Lynx.
	Note that most references to HTTP documents use the four-
letter file extension ".html". However, some HTTP documents are on
file systems that support only three-letter file extensions (can you
say "MS-DOS"?), so you may encounter just ".htm". This is just to let
you know that what you see is not a typo.
	References to my book "Understanding Japanese Information
Processing" are (affectionately) abbreviated as UJIP. These references
also apply to the Japanese translation (UJIP-J).
	Hexadecimal values are prefixed with 0x, and every two
hexadecimal digits represent a one-byte value. Other values can be
assumed to be in decimal notation.
	Chinese characters are referred to as kanji (Japanese), hanzi
(Chinese), or hanja (Korean), depending on context.
	References to ISO 10646-1:1993 also refer to Unicode
(usually). I have done this so that I do not have to repeat "Unicode"
in the same context as ISO 10646-1:1993. There are times, however,
when I need to distinguish ISO 10646-1:1993 from Unicode.


INTRODUCTION

	Electronic mail (e-mail), just one of the many Internet
resources, has become a very efficient means of communicating both
locally and world-wide. While it is very simple to send text which
uses only the 94 printable ASCII characters, character sets that
contain more than these ASCII characters pose special problems.
	This document is primarily concerned with CJK character set
and encoding issues. Much of this sort of information is not easily
obtained. This represents one person's attempt at making such
information more widely available.


PART 1: WHAT'S UP WITH UJIP?

	UJIP (First Edition) was published in September 1993 by
O'Reilly & Associates, Incorporated. The second printing (*not* the
Second Edition) was subsequently published in March 1994. The page
count for both printings is unchanged at 470.
	The following files contain the latest information about
changes (additions and corrections) made to UJIP and UJIP-J for
various printings, both for those that have taken place (such as for
the second printing of the English edition) and for those that are
planned (the first digit is the edition, and the second is the
printing):

  ftp://ftp.ora.com/pub/examples/nutshell/ujip/errata/ujip-errata-1-2.txt
  ftp://ftp.ora.com/pub/examples/nutshell/ujip/errata/ujip-errata-1-3.txt
  ftp://ftp.ora.com/pub/examples/nutshell/ujip/errata/ujip-j-errata-1-2.txt

I *highly* recommend that all readers of UJIP obtain these errata
files. Those without FTP access can request copies directly from me.
	The Japanese translation of UJIP (UJIP-J), co-published by
O'Reilly & Associates, Incorporated and SOFTBANK Corporation, was just
released. The translation was done by my good friend Jack Halpern,
along with one of his colleagues, Takeo Suzuki. The Japanese edition
incorporates corrections and updates not yet found in the English
edition. The page count is 535.
	Late-breaking news! I am currently working on UJIP Second
Edition (to be retitled as "Understanding CJK Information Processing"
and abbreviated UCJKIP). If all goes well, it should be available by
January 1997, and will be well over 700 pages. If there was something
you wanted to see in UJIP, now's your chance to send me a request...


PART 2: CJK CHARACTER SET STANDARDS

	These sections describe the character sets used in Japan,
China (PRC and Taiwan), and Korea. Exact numbers of characters are
provided for each character set standard (when known), as well as
tidbits of information not otherwise available. This provides the
basic foundations for understanding how CJK scripts are handled on
computer systems.
	The two basic types of characters enumerated by CJK character
set standards are Chinese characters (kanji, hanzi, or hanja), which
number in the thousands (and, in some cases, tens of thousands), and
characters other than Chinese characters (symbols, numerals, kana
hangul, alphabets, and so on), which usually number in the hundreds
(there are thousands of pre-combined hangul, though).
	If you happen to be running X Windows, it is very easy to
display these CJK character sets (if a bitmapped font for the
character set exists, that is). Here is what I usually do:

o Obtain a BDF (Bitmap Distribution Format) font for the target
  character set. Try the following URLs for starters:

  ftp://cair-archive.kaist.ac.kr/pub/hangul/fonts/
  ftp://etlport.etl.go.jp/pub/mule/fonts/
  ftp://ftp.ifcss.org/pub/software/fonts/{big5,cns,gb,misc,unicode}/bdf/
  ftp://ftp.kuis.kyoto-u.ac.jp/misc/fonts/jisksp-fonts/
  ftp://ftp.net.tsinghua.edu.cn/pub/Chinese/fonts/
  ftp://ftp.ora.com/pub/examples/nutshell/ujip/unix/
  ftp://ftp.technet.sg:/pub/chinese/fonts/
  http://ccic.ifcss.org/www/pub/software/fonts/

  BDF files usually have the string "bdf" somewhere in their file
  name, usually at the end. If the file is compressed (noticing that
  it ends in .gz or .Z is a good indication), decompress it. BDF files
  are text files.

o Convert the BDF file to SNF (Server Natural Format) or PCF (Portable
  Compiled Format) using the programs "bdftosnf" or "bdftopcf,"
  respectively. Example command lines are as follows:

  % bdftopcf jiskan16-1990.bdf > k16-90.pcf
  % bdftosnf jiskan16-1990.bdf > k16-90.snf

  SNF files (and the "bdftosnf" program) are used on X11R4 and
  earlier, and PCF files (and the "bdftopcf" program) are used on
  X11R5 and later.

o Copy the SNF or PCF file to a directory in the font search path (or
  make a new path). Supposing I made a new directory called "fonts" in
  my home directory, I then run "mkfontdir" on the directory
  containing the SNF or PCF files as follows:

  % mkfontdir ~/fonts

  This creates a fonts.dir file in ~/fonts. I can now add this
  directory to my font search path with the following command:

  % xset +fp ~/fonts

o The command "xfd" (X Font Displayer) with the "-fn" switch followed
  by a font name then invokes a window that displays all the
  characters of the font. In the case of two-byte (CJK) fonts, one row
  is displayed at a time. The following is an example command line:

  % xfd -fn -misc-fixed-medium-r-normal--16-150-75-75-c-160-jisx0208.1990-0

  You can create a "fonts.alias" file in the same directory as the
  "fonts.dir" file in order to shorten the name when accessing the
  font. The alias "k16-90" could be used instead if the content of the
  fonts.alias file is as follows:

  k16-90  -misc-fixed-medium-r-normal--16-150-75-75-c-160-jisx0208.1990-0

  Don't forget to execute the following command in order to make the
  X Font Server aware of the new alias:

  % xset fp rehash

  Now you can use a simpler command line for "xfd" as follows:

  % xfd -fn k16-90

	The "X Window System User's Guide" (Volume 3 of the X Window
System series by O'Reilly & Associates, Inc.) provides detailed
information on managing fonts under X Windows (pp 123-160). The
article entitled "The X Administrator: Font Formats and Utilities" (pp
14-34 in "The X Resource," Issue 2), describes the BDF, SNF, and PCF
formats in great detail.
	There is another bitmap format called HBF (Hanzi Bitmap
Format), which is similar to BDF, but optimized for fixed-width
(monospaced) fonts. It is described in the article entitled "The HBF
Font Format: Optimizing Fixed-pitch Font Support" (pp 113-123 in "The
X Resource," Issue 10), and also at the following URL:

  ftp://ftp.ifcss.org/pub/software/fonts/hbf-discussion/

HBF fonts can be found at the following URL:

  ftp://ftp.ifcss.org/pub/software/fonts/{big5,cns,gb,misc,unicode}/hbf/

	Lastly, you may wish to check out my newly-developed CJK
Character Set Server, which generates various CJK character sets with
proper encoding applied. It is written in Perl, and accessed through
an HTML form. This server can be considered an upgrade to my JChar
tool (written in C). The URL is:

  http://jasper.ora.com/lunde/cjk-char.html


2.1: JAPANESE

	All (national) character set standards that originate in Japan
have names that begin with the three letters JIS. JIS is short for
"Japanese Industrial Standard." But it is JSA (Japanese Standards
Association) who publishes the corresponding manuals. Chapter 3 and
Appendixes H and J of UJIP provide more detailed information on
Japanese character set standards.


2.1.1: JIS X 0201-1976

	JIS X 0201-1976 (formerly JIS C 6220-1969; reaffirmed in 1989;
and its revision [with no character set changes] is currently under
public review) enumerates two sets of characters: JIS-Roman and
half-width katakana.
	JIS-Roman is the Japanese equivalent of the ASCII character
set, namely 128 characters consisting of the following:

o 10 numerals
o 52 uppercase and lowercase characters of the Latin alphabet
o 32 symbols (punctuation and so on)
o 34 non-printing characters (white space and control characters)

The term "white space" refers to characters that occupy space, but
have no appearance, such as tabs, spaces, and termination characters
(line feed, carriage return, and form feed).
	So, how are JIS-Roman and ASCII different? The following
three codes are (usually) different:

  Code   ASCII        JIS-Roman
  ^^^^   ^^^^^        ^^^^^^^^^
  0x5C   backslash    yen symbol
  0x7C   broken bar   bar
  0x7E   tilde        overbar

	Half-width katakana consists of 63 characters that provide a
minimal set of characters necessary for expressing Japanese. The
shapes are compressed, and visually occupy a space half that of
*normal* Japanese characters.


2.1.2: JIS X 0208-1990

	This basic Japanese character set standard enumerates 6,879
characters, 6,355 of which are kanji separated into two levels. Kanji
in the first level are arranged by (most frequent) reading, and those
in the second level are arranged by radical then total number of
(remaining) strokes.

o Row 1: 94 symbols
o Row 2: 53 symbols
o Row 3: 10 numerals and 52 uppercase and lowercase Latin alphabet
o Row 4: 83 hiragana
o Row 5: 86 katakana
o Row 6: 48 uppercase and lowercase Greek alphabet
o Row 7: 66 uppercase and lowercase Cyrillic (Russian) alphabet
o Row 8: 32 line-drawing elements
o Rows 16 through 47: 2,965 kanji (JIS Level 1 Kanji; last is 47-51)
o Rows 48 through 84: 3,390 kanji (JIS Level 2 Kanji; last is 84-06)

Appendix B of UJIP provides a complete illustration of the JIS X
0208-1990 character set standard by KUTEN (row-cell) code. Appendix G
(pp 294-317) of "Developing International Software for Windows 95 and
Windows NT" by Nadine Kano illustrates the JIS X 0208-1990 character
set standard plus the Microsoft extensions by Shift-JIS code
(Microsoft calls this Code Page 932).
	Earlier versions of this standard were dated 1978 (JIS C
6226-1978) and 1983 (JIS X 0208-1983, formerly JIS C 6226-1983).
	JIS X 0208 went through a revision (from November 1995 until
February 1996), and is slated for publication sometime in 1996 (to
become JIS X 0208-1996). More information on this revision is
available at the following URL:

  ftp://ftp.tiu.ac.jp/jis/jisx0208/


2.1.3: JIS X 0212-1990

	This supplemental Japanese character set standard enumerates
6,067 characters, 5,801 of which are kanji ordered by radical then
total number of (remaining) strokes. All 5,801 kanji are unique when
compared to those in JIS X 0208-1990 (see Section 2.1.2). The
remaining 266 characters are categorized as non-kanji.

o Row 2: 21 diacritics and symbols
o Row 6: 21 Greek characters with diacritics
o Row 7: 26 Eastern European characters
o Rows 9 through 11: 198 alphabetic characters
o Rows 16 through 77: 5,801 kanji (last is 77-67)

Appendix C of UJIP provides a complete illustration of the JIS X
0212-1990 character set standard by KUTEN (row-cell) code.
	The only commercial operating system that provides JIS X
0212-1990 support is BTRON by Personal Media Corporation:

  http://www.personal-media.co.jp/

Section 3.3.18 provides information about TRON Code (used by BTRON),
and details how it encodes the JIS X 0212-1990 character set.


2.1.4: JIS X 0221-1995

	This document is, for all practical purposes, the Japanese
translation of ISO 10646-1:1993 (see Section 2.5.1). Like ISO
10646-1:1993, it is based on Unicode Version 1.1.
	It is noteworthy that JIS X 0221-1995 enumerates subsets that
are applicable for Japanese use (a brief description of their contents
in parentheses):

o BASIC JAPANESE (JIS X 0208-1990 and JIS X 0201-1976 -- characters
  that can be created by means of combining are not included -- 6,884
  characters)
o JAPANESE NON IDEOGRAPHICS SUPPLEMENT (1,913 characters: all non-
  kanji of JIS X 0212-1990 plus hundreds of non-JIS characters)
o JAPANESE IDEOGRAPHICS SUPPLEMENT 1 (918 frequently-used kanji from
  JIS X 0212-1990, including 28 that are identical to kanji forms in
  JIS C 6226-1978)
o JAPANESE IDEOGRAPHICS SUPPLEMENT 2 (the remainder of JIS X 0212-
  1990, namely 4,883 kanji)
o JAPANESE IDEOGRAPHICS SUPPLEMENT 3 (the remaining kanji of ISO
  10646-1:1993, namely 8,746 characters)
o FULLWIDTH ALPHANUMERICS (94 characters; for compatibility)
o HALFWIDTH KATAKANA (63 characters; for compatibility)

	Pages 893 through 993 provide Kangxi Zidian (a classic
300-year-old Chinese character dictionary containing approximately
50,000 characters) and Dai Kanwa Jiten (also known as Morohashi)
indexes for the entire Chinese character block, namely from 0x4E00
through 0x9FA5.
	At 25,750 Yen, it is actually cheaper than ISO 10646-1:1993!


2.1.5: JIS X 0213-199X

	I recently became aware that JSA plans to publish an extension
to JIS X 0208, containing approximately 2,000 characters (kanji and
non-kanji). A public review of this new standard is planned for Summer
1996. I would expect that its information will eventually be available
at the following URL:

    ftp://ftp.tiu.ac.jp/jis/


2.1.6: OBSOLETE STANDARDS

	JIS C 6226-1978 and JIS X 0208-1983 (formerly JIS C 6226-1983)
have been superseded by JIS X 0208-1990. Section 4.1 provides details
on the changes made between these earlier versions of JIS X 0208.
	JIS X 0221-1995 does not mean the end of JIS X 0201-1976, JIS
X 0208-1990, and JIS X 0212-1990. Instead, it will co-exist with those
standards.


2.2: CHINESE (PRC)

	All character set standards that originate in PRC have
designations that begin with "GB." "GB" is short for "Guo Biao" (which
is, in turn, short for "Guojia Biaojun") and means "National
Standard." A select few also have "/T" attached. The "T" presumably is
short for "Traditional." Section 2.2.11 describes ISO-IR-165:1992,
which is a variant of GB 2312-80. It is included here because of this
relationship.
	Most people correlate GB character set standards with
simplified Chinese, but as you will see below, that is not always the
case.
	There are three basic character sets, each one having a
simplified and traditional version.

  Character Set  Set Number  Character Forms
  ^^^^^^^^^^^^^  ^^^^^^^^^^  ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
  GB 2312-80     0           Simplified
  GB/T 12345-90  1           Traditional of GB 2312-80
  GB 7589-87     2           Simplified
  GB/T 13131-9X  3           Traditional of GB 7589-87
  GB 7590-87     4           Simplified
  GB/T 13132-9X  5           Traditional of GB 7590-87


2.2.1: GB 1988-89

	This character set, formerly GB 1988-80 and sometimes referred
to as GB-Roman, is the Chinese analog to ASCII and ISO 646. The main
difference is that the currency symbol (0x24), which is represented as
a dollar sign ($) in ASCII, is represented as a Chinese Yuan
(currency) symbol instead. GB 1988-89 is sometimes referred to as
GB-Roman.


2.2.2: GB 2312-80

	This basic (simplified) Chinese character set standard
enumerates 7,445 characters, 6,763 of which are hanzi separated into
two levels. Hanzi in the first level are arranged by reading, and
those in the second level are arranges by radical then total number of
(remaining) strokes. GB 2312-80 is also known as the "Primary Set,"
GB0 (zero), or just GB.

o Row 1: 94 symbols
o Row 2: 72 numerals
o Row 3: 94 full-width GB 1988-89 characters (see Section 2.2.1)
o Row 4: 83 hiragana
o Row 5: 86 katakana
o Row 6: 48 uppercase and lowercase Greek alphabet
o Row 7: 66 uppercase and lowercase Cyrillic (Russian) alphabet
o Row 8: 26 Pinyin and 37 Bopomofo characters
o Row 9: 76 line-drawing elements (09-04 through 09-79)
o Rows 16 through 55: 3,755 hanzi (Level 1 Hanzi; last is 55-89)
o Rows 56 through 87: 3,008 hanzi (Level 2 Hanzi; last is 87-94)

Compare some of the structure with JIS X 0208-1990, and you will find
many similarities, such as:

o Hiragana, katakana, Greek, and Cyrillic characters are in Rows 4, 5,
  6, and 7, respectively
o Chinese characters begin at Row 16
o Chinese characters are separated into two levels
o Level 1 arranged by reading
o Level 2 arranged by radical then total number of strokes

The Japanese standard, JIS C 6226-1978, came out in 1978, which means
that it pre-dates GB 2312-80. The above similarities could not be by
coincidence, but rather by design.
	Appendix G (pp 318-344) of "Developing International Software
for Windows 95 and Windows NT" by Nadine Kano illustrates the GB 2312-
80 character set standard by EUC code (Microsoft calls this Code Page
936). Code Page 936 incorporates the correction of the hanzi at 79-81,
and the correction of the order of 07-22 and 07-23 (see Section 2.2.3
for more details).


2.2.3: GB 6345.1-86

	This document specifies corrections and additions to GB
2312-80 (see Section 2.2.2). The following is a detailed enumeration
of the changes:

o The form of "g" in Row 3 (position 71) was altered
o Row 8 has six additional Pinyin characters (08-27 through 08-32)
o Row 10 contains half-width versions of Row 3 (94 characters)
o Row 11 contains half-width versions of the Pinyin characters from
  Row 8 (32 characters; 11-01 through 11-32)
o The hanzi at 79-81 was corrected to have a simplified left-side
  radical (this was an error in GB 2312-80)

Note that these changes affect the total number of characters in GB
2312-80 -- an increase of 132 characters. This now makes 7,577 as
the total number of characters in GB 2312-80 (7,445 plus 132).
	There was, however, an undocumented correction made in GB
6345.1-86. The order of characters 07-22 and 07-23 (uppercase
Cyrillic) were reversed. This error is apparently in the first and
perhaps second printing of the GB 2312-80 manual, because the copy I
have is from the third printing, and this has been corrected. Page 145
(Figure 113) of John Clews' "Language Automation Worldwide: The
Development of Character Set Standards" illustrates this error.
Developers should take special note of this -- I have seen GB 2312-80
based font products that propagate this ordering error.


2.2.4: GB 7589-87

	This character set enumerates 7,237 hanzi in Rows 16 through
92 (last is 92-93), and they are ordered by radical then total number
of (remaining) strokes. GB 7589-87 is also known as the "Second
Supplementary Set" or GB2.


2.2.5: GB 7590-87

	This character set enumerates 7,039 hanzi in Rows 16 through
90 (last is 90-83), and they are ordered by radical then total number
of (remaining) strokes. GB 7590-87 is also known as the "Fourth
Supplementary Set" or GB4.


2.2.6: GB 8565.2-88

	This standard makes additions to GB 2312-80 (these additions
are separate from those made in GB 6345.1-86 described in Section
2.2.3). GB 8565.2-88 is also known as GB8. In this case there are 705
additions, indicated as follows:

o Row 13 contains 50 hanzi from GB 7589-87 (last is 13-50)
o Row 14 contains 92 hanzi from GB 7590-87 (last is 14-92)
o Row 15 contains 69 non-hanzi indicating dates and times, plus 24
  miscellaneous hanzi (for personal/place names and radicals; last is
  15-93).
o Rows 90 through 94 contain 470 hanzi from GB 7589-87 (94 each)

GB 8565.2-88 therefore provides a total of 8,150 characters (7,445
plus 705).


2.2.7: GB/T 12345-90

	This character set is nearly identical to GB 2312-80 (see
Section 2.2.2) in terms of the number and arrangement of characters,
but simplified hanzi are replaced by their traditional versions. GB/T
12345-90 is also known as the "Supplementary Set" or GB1.
	The following are some interesting facts about this character
set (some instances of simplified/traditional pairs that appear below
are actually character form differences):

o 29 vertical-use characters (punctuation and parentheses) included in
  Row 6 (06-57 through 06-85).

o 2,118 traditional hanzi replace simplified hanzi in Rows 16 through
  87. The "G1-Unique" appendix of the unofficial version (supplied to
  the CJK-JRG for Han Unification purposes) is missing the following
  four (specifies only 2,114):

  0x5B3B    0x6D2F
  0x5E7C    0x6F71

  But, ISO 10646-1:1993 ended up getting these hanzi included anyway,
  with correct mappings.

o Four simplified/traditional hanzi pairs (eight affected code points)
  in rows 16 through 87 are swapped:

  0x3A73 <-> 0x6161
  0x5577 <-> 0x6167
  0x5360 <-> 0x6245 (see the next bullet)
  0x4334 <-> 0x7761

o One hanzi (0x6245), after being swapped, had its left-side radical
  unsimplified (this character, now at 0x5360, is considered part of
  the 2,118 traditional hanzi from the second bullet):

  0x6245 -> 0x5360

o 103 hanzi included in Rows 88 (94 characters) and 89 (9 characters;
  89-01 through 89-09). These are all related to characters between
  Rows 16 and 87.

  - 41 simplified hanzi from Rows 16 through 87 moved to Rows 88 and
    89 (traditional hanzi are now at the original code points):

    0x3327 -> 0x7827  0x3E5D -> 0x7846  0x4B49 -> 0x7869
    0x3365 -> 0x7828  0x3F64 -> 0x7849  0x4C28 -> 0x786B
    0x3373 -> 0x7829  0x402F -> 0x784B  0x4D3F -> 0x786F
    0x3533 -> 0x782C  0x4030 -> 0x784C  0x4D72 -> 0x7871
    0x356D -> 0x782D  0x406F -> 0x784E  0x5236 -> 0x7878
    0x3637 -> 0x782F  0x4131 -> 0x7850  0x5374 -> 0x7879
    0x3736 -> 0x7832  0x463B -> 0x785C  0x5438 -> 0x787C
    0x3761 -> 0x7833  0x463E -> 0x785D  0x5446 -> 0x787D
    0x3849 -> 0x7835  0x464B -> 0x785E  0x5622 -> 0x7921
    0x3963 -> 0x7838  0x464D -> 0x785F  0x563B -> 0x7923
    0x3B2E -> 0x783B  0x4653 -> 0x7860  0x5656 -> 0x7926
    0x3C38 -> 0x7840  0x4837 -> 0x7866  0x567E -> 0x7928
    0x3C5B -> 0x7842  0x4961 -> 0x7867  0x573C -> 0x7929
    0x3C76 -> 0x7843  0x4A75 -> 0x7868

  - 62 hanzi added to Rows 88 and 89 (the gaps from the above are
    filled in). These were mostly to account for multiple traditional
    hanzi collapsing into a single simplified form.

  - The following code point mappings illustrate how all of these 103
    hanzi are related to hanzi between Rows 16 and 87 (note how many
    of these 103 hanzi map to a single code point):

    0x7821 -> 0x305A  0x7844 -> 0x3D2A  0x7867 -> 0x4961
    0x7822 -> 0x3065  0x7845 -> 0x3E21  0x7868 -> 0x4A75
    0x7823 -> 0x316D  0x7846 -> 0x3E5D  0x7869 -> 0x4B49
    0x7824 -> 0x3170  0x7847 -> 0x3E6D  0x786A -> 0x4B55
    0x7825 -> 0x3237  0x7848 -> 0x3F4B  0x786B -> 0x4C28
    0x7826 -> 0x3245  0x7849 -> 0x3F64  0x786C -> 0x4C28
    0x7827 -> 0x3327  0x784A -> 0x4027  0x786D -> 0x4C28
    0x7828 -> 0x3365  0x784B -> 0x402F  0x786E -> 0x4C33
    0x7829 -> 0x3373  0x784C -> 0x4030  0x786F -> 0x4D3F
    0x782A -> 0x3376  0x784D -> 0x405B  0x7870 -> 0x4D45
    0x782B -> 0x3531  0x784E -> 0x406F  0x7871 -> 0x4D72
    0x782C -> 0x3533  0x784F -> 0x407A  0x7872 -> 0x4F35
    0x782D -> 0x356D  0x7850 -> 0x4131  0x7873 -> 0x4F35
    0x782E -> 0x362C  0x7851 -> 0x414B  0x7874 -> 0x4F4C
    0x782F -> 0x3637  0x7852 -> 0x4231  0x7875 -> 0x4F72
    0x7830 -> 0x3671  0x7853 -> 0x425E  0x7876 -> 0x506B
    0x7831 -> 0x3722  0x7854 -> 0x4339  0x7877 -> 0x5229
    0x7832 -> 0x3736  0x7855 -> 0x4349  0x7878 -> 0x5236
    0x7833 -> 0x3761  0x7856 -> 0x4349  0x7879 -> 0x5374
    0x7834 -> 0x3834  0x7857 -> 0x4349  0x787A -> 0x5379
    0x7835 -> 0x3849  0x7858 -> 0x4356  0x787B -> 0x5375
    0x7836 -> 0x3948  0x7859 -> 0x4366  0x787C -> 0x5438
    0x7837 -> 0x394E  0x785A -> 0x436F  0x787D -> 0x5446
    0x7838 -> 0x3963  0x785B -> 0x3159  0x787E -> 0x5460
    0x7839 -> 0x6358  0x785C -> 0x463B  0x7921 -> 0x5622
    0x783A -> 0x3A7A  0x785D -> 0x463E  0x7922 -> 0x563B
    0x783B -> 0x3B2E  0x785E -> 0x464B  0x7923 -> 0x563B
    0x783C -> 0x3B58  0x785F -> 0x464D  0x7924 -> 0x5642
    0x783D -> 0x3B63  0x7860 -> 0x4653  0x7925 -> 0x5646
    0x783E -> 0x3B71  0x7861 -> 0x4727  0x7926 -> 0x5656
    0x783F -> 0x3C22  0x7862 -> 0x4729  0x7927 -> 0x566C
    0x7840 -> 0x3C38  0x7863 -> 0x4F4B  0x7928 -> 0x567E
    0x7841 -> 0x3C52  0x7864 -> 0x476F  0x7929 -> 0x573C
    0x7842 -> 0x3C5B  0x7865 -> 0x477A
    0x7843 -> 0x3C76  0x7866 -> 0x4837

So, if we total everything up, we see that GB/T 12345-90 has 2,180
hanzi (2,118 are replacements for GB 2312-80 code points, and 62 are
additional) and 29 non-hanzi not found in GB 2312-80.
	Note that the printing of the GB/T 12345-90 has some
character-form errors. The errors I am aware of are as follows:

  Code Point  Description of Error
  ^^^^^^^^^^  ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
  0x4125      The upper-left element should be "tree" instead of
              "warrior"
  0x596C      The "bird" radical should not include the "fire" element


2.2.8: GB/T 13131-9X

	This character set is identical to GB 7589-87 (see Section
2.2.4) in terms of number of characters, but simplified hanzi are
replaced by their traditional versions. The exact number of such
substitutions is currently unknown to this author. GB/T 13131-9X is
also known as the "Third Supplementary Set" or GB3.


2.2.9: GB/T 13132-9X

	This character set is identical to GB 7590-87 (see Section
2.2.5) in terms of number of characters, but simplified hanzi are
replaced by their traditional versions. The exact number of such
substitutions is currently unknown to this author. GB/T 13132-9X is
also known as the "Fifth Supplementary Set" or GB5.


2.2.10: GB 13000.1-93

	This document is, for all practical purposes, the Chinese
translation of ISO 10646-1:1993 (see Section 2.5.1).


2.2.11: ISO-IR-165:1992

	This standard, also known as the CCITT Chinese Set, is a
variant of GB 2312-80 with the following characteristics:

o GB 6345.1-86 modifications (including the undocumented one) and
  additions, namely 132 characters (see Section 2.2.3)
o GB 8565.2-88 additions, namely 705 characters (see Section 2.2.6)
o Row 6 contains 22 background (shading) characters (06-60 through
  06-81)
o Row 12 contains 94 hanzi
o Row 13 contains 44 additional hanzi (13-51 through 13-94; fills the
  row)
o Row 15 contains 1 additional hanzi (15-94)

ISO-IR-165:1992 can therefore be considered a superset of GB 2312-80,
GB 6345.1-86, and GB 8565.2-88. This means 8,443 total characters
compared to the 7,445 in GB 2312-80, 7,577 in GB 6345.1-86, and the
8,150 in GB 8565.2-88.


2.2.12: OBSOLETE STANDARDS

	Most GB standards seem to be revised through other documents,
so it is hard to point to a standard and claim that it is obsolete.
The only revision I am aware of is the GB 1988-89 (the original was
named GB 1988-80).


2.3: CHINESE (TAIWAN)

	The sections below describe two major Taiwanese character
sets, namely Big Five and CNS 11643-1992. As you will learn they are
somewhat compatible. CCCII, also developed in Taiwan, is described in
Section 2.5.2.


2.3.1: BIG FIVE

	The Big Five character set is composed of 94 rows of 157
characters each (the 157 characters of each row are encoded in an
initial group of 63 codes followed by the remaining 94 codes). The
following is a break-down of its contents:

o Row 1: 157 symbols
o Row 2: 157 symbols
o Row 3: 94 symbols
o Rows 4 through 38: 5,401 hanzi (Level 1 Hanzi; last is 38-63)
o Rows 41 through 89: 7,652 hanzi (Level 2 Hanzi; last is 89-116)

This forms what I consider to be the basic Big Five set. Actually, two
of the hanzi in Level 2 are duplicates, so there are actually only
7,650 unique hanzi in Level 2.
	There are two major extensions to Big Five. The first really
has no name, and can be considered part of the basic Big Five set as
specified above. It adds the following characters:

o Rows 38-39: 4 Japanese iteration marks, 83 hiragana, 86 katakana, 66
  uppercase and lowercase Cyrillic (Russian) alphabet, 10 circled
  digits, and 10 parenthesized digits

	The other extension was developed by a company called ETen
Information System in Taiwan, and is actually considered to be the
most widely used version of Big Five. It provides the following
extensions to Big Five (different from the above extension):

o Rows 38-40: 10 circled digits, 10 parenthesized digits, 10 lowercase
  Roman numerals, 25 classical radicals, 15 Japanese-specific symbols,
  83 hiragana, 86 katakana, 66 uppercase and lowercase Cyrillic
  (Russian) alphabet, 3 arrows, 10 radical-like hanzi elements, 40
  fraction-like digits, and 7 symbols
o Row 89: 7 hanzi, 33 double-lined line-drawing elements, and a black
  box

	It is *very* important to note that while these two extensions
have many common portions (in particular, hiragana, katakana, the
Cyrillic alphabet, and so on), they do not share the same code points
for such characters.
	Appendix G (pp 407-450) of "Developing International Software
for Windows 95 and Windows NT" by Nadine Kano illustrates the Big Five
character set standard by Big Five code (Microsoft calls this Code
Page 950). Code Page 950 incorporates some of the ETen extensions,
namely those in Row 89.


2.3.2: CNS 11643-1992

	CNS 11643-1992 (also known as CNS 11643 X 5012), by
definition, consists of 16 planes of characters, seven of which have
character assignments. Each plane is a 94-row-by-94-cell matrix
capable of holding a total of 8,836 characters. CNS stands for
"Chinese National Standard."
	CNS 11643-1992 specifies characters only in the first seven
planes. A break-down of characters, by plane, is as follows:

o Plane 1:
  - 438 symbols in Rows 1 through 6
  - 213 classical radicals in Rows 7 through 9
  - 33 graphic representations of control characters in Row 34
  - 5,401 hanzi in Rows 36 through 93 (last is 93-43)
o Plane 2: 7,650 hanzi in Rows 1 through 82 (last is 82-36)
o Plane 3: 6,148 hanzi in Rows 1 through 66 (last is 66-38)
o Plane 4: 7,298 hanzi in Rows 1 through 78 (last is 78-60)
o Plane 5: 8,603 hanzi in Rows 1 through 92 (last is 92-49)
o Plane 6: 6,388 hanzi in Rows 1 through 68 (last is 68-90)
o Plane 7: 6,539 hanzi in Rows 1 through 70 (last is 70-53)

The total number of characters in CNS 11643-1992 is a staggering
48,711 characters, 48,027 of which are hanzi. Also note that number of
hanzi in Plane 1 is identical to Level 1 hanzi of Big Five (see
Section 2.3.1). The 2 extra hanzi in Level 2 hanzi of Big Five are
actually redundant, and are therefore not in CNS 11643-1992 Plane 2.
	It is rumored that Plane 8 is currently being defined, and
will add yet more hanzi to this standard.


2.3.3: CNS 5205

	This character set is Taiwan's analog to ASCII and ISO 646,
and is reportedly rarely used. How it differs from ASCII, if at all,
is unknown to this author.


2.3.4: OBSOLETE STANDARDS

	CNS 11643-1986 specified characters only in the first three
planes, as described in Section 2.3.2. Also, Plane 3 of CNS 11643-1992
was called Plane 14 of CNS 11643-1986.


2.4: KOREAN

	The sections below describe the most current Korean character
sets, namely KS C 5636-1993, KS C 5601-1992, KS C 5657-1991, and KS C
5700-1995. "KS" stands for "Korean Standard."


2.4.1: KS C 5636-1993

	This character set (published on January 6, 1993), formerly KS
C 5636-1989 (published on April 22, 1989) and sometimes referred to as
KS-Roman, is the Korean analog to ASCII and ISO 646-1991. The primary
difference is that the ASCII backslash (0x5C) is represented as a Won
symbol.


2.4.2: KS C 5601-1992

	This basic Korean character set standard enumerates 8,224
characters, 4,888 of which are hanja, and 2,350 of which are pre-
combined hangul. The hanja and hangul blocks are arranged by reading.
The following is a break-down of its contents:

o Row 1: 94 symbols
o Row 2: 69 abbreviations and symbols
o Row 3: 94 full-width KS C 5636-1993 characters (see Section 2.4.1)
o Row 4: 94 hangul elements
o Row 5: 68 lowercase and uppercase Roman numerals and lowercase and
  uppercase Greek alphabet
o Row 6: 68 line-drawing elements
o Row 7: 79 abbreviations
o Row 8: 91 phonetic symbols, circled characters, and fractions
o Row 9: 94 phonetic symbols, parenthesized characters, subscripts,
  and superscripts
o Row 10: 83 hiragana
o Row 11: 86 katakana
o Row 12: 66 lowercase and uppercase Cyrillic (Russian) alphabet
o Rows 16 through 40: 2,350 pre-combined hangul (last is 40-94)
o Rows 42 through 93: 4,888 hanja (last is 93-94)

Rows 41 and 94 are designated for user-defined characters.
	There are many similarities with JIS X 0208-1990 and GB
2312-80, such as hiragana, katakana, Greek, and Cyrillic characters,
but they are assigned to different rows.
	There is an interesting note about the hanja block (Rows 42
through 93). Although there are 4,888 hanja, not all are unique. The
hanja block is arranged by reading, and in those cases when a hanja
has more than one reading, that hanja is duplicated (sometimes more
than once) in the same character set. There are 268 such cases of
duplicate hanja in KS C 5601-1992, meaning that it contains 4,620
unique hanja. If you have a copy of the KS C 5601-1992 manual handy,
you can compare the following four code points:

  0x6445
  0x5162
  0x5525
  0x6879

While most of these cases involve two hanja instances, there are four
hanja that have three instances, and one (listed above) that has four!
This is the only CJK character set that has this property of
intentionally duplicating Chinese characters. See Section 4.4 for more
details.
	Annex 3 of this standard defines the complete set of 11,172
pre-combined hangul characters, also known as Johab. Johab refers to
the encoding method, and is almost like encoding all possible three-
letter words (meaning that most are nonsense). See Section 3.3.5 for
more details on Johab encoding.


2.4.3: KS C 5657-1991

	This character set standard provides supplemental characters
for Korean writing, to include symbols, pre-combined hangul, and
hanja. The following is a break-down of its contents:

o Rows 1 through 7: 613 lowercase and uppercase Latin characters with
  diacritics (see note below)
o Rows 8 through 10: 273 lowercase and uppercase Greek characters with
  diacritics
o Rows 11 through 13: 275 symbols
o Row 14: 27 compound hangul elements
o Rows 16 through 36: 1,930 pre-combined hangul (last is 36-50)
o Rows 37 through 54: 1,675 pre-combined hangul (last is 54-77; see
  note below)
o Rows 55 through 85: 2,856 hanja (last is 85-36)

The KS C 5657-1991 manual has a possible error (or at least an
inconsistency) for Rows 1 through 7. The manual says that there are
615 characters in that range, but I only counted 613. The difference
can be found on page 19 as the following two characters:

  Character Code  Character
  ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^  ^^^^^^^^^
  0x2137          X
  0x217A          TM

An "X" doesn't belong there (it is already in KS C 5601-1992 at code
point 0x2358), and the trademark symbol is also part of KS C 5601-1992
at code point 0x2262. This is why I feel that my count of 613 is more
accurate than what is explicitly stated in the manual on page 2.
	Also, page 2 of the manual says that Rows 37 through 54
contains 1,677 pre-combined hangul, but I only counted 1,675 (17 rows
of 94 characters plus a final row with 77 characters -- do the math
for yourself).
	Here's another interesting note. My official copy of this
standard has all of its 2,856 hanja hand-written.


2.4.4: GB 12052-89

	You may be asking yourself why a GB standard is listed under
the Korean section of this document. Well, there is a rather large
Korean population in China (Korea was considered part of China before
the 1890s), and they need a character set standard for communicating
using hangul. GB 12052-89 is a Korean character set standard
established by China (PRC), and enumerates a total of 5,979
characters.
	The following is the arrangement of this character set:

o Row 1: 94 symbols
o Row 2: 72 numerals
o Row 3: 94 full-width ASCII characters
o Row 4: 83 hiragana
o Row 5: 86 katakana
o Row 6: 48 uppercase and lowercase Greek alphabet
o Row 7: 66 uppercase and lowercase Cyrillic (Russian) alphabet
o Row 8: 26 Pinyin and 37 Bopomofo characters
o Row 9: 76 line-drawing elements (09-04 through 09-79)
o Rows 16 through 37: 2,068 pre-combined hangul (Level 1 Hangul, Part
  1; last is 37-94)
o Rows 38 through 52: 1,356 pre-combined hangul (Level 1 Hangul, Part
  2; last is 52-40)
o Rows 53 through 71: 1,779 pre-combined hangul (Level 2 Hangul; last
  is 71-87)
o Rows 71 through 72: 94 "Idu" hanja (71-89 through 72-88)

	There are a few interesting notes I can make about this
character set:

o Rows 1 through 9 are identical to the same rows in GB 2312-80,
  except that 03-04 is a dollar sign, not a Chinese Yuan (currency)
  symbol.

o The GB 12052-89 manual states on pp 1 and 3 that Rows 53 through 72
  contain 1,876 characters, but I only counted 1,873 (1,779 hangul
  plus 94 hanja).

o The total number of characters, 5,979, is correctly stated in the
  manual although the hangul count is incorrect.

o The arrangement and ordering of these hangul bear no relationship to
  that of KS C 5601-1992. Both standards order by reading, which is
  the only way in which they are similar.

	I am not aware to what extent this character set is being
used (and who might be using it).


2.4.5: KS C 5700-1995

	Korea has developed a new character set standard called KS C
5700-1995. It is equivalent to ISO 10646-1:1993, but have pre-combined
hangul as provided (and ordered) in Unicode Version 2.0 (meaning that
all 11,172 hangul are in a contiguous block).


2.4.6: OBSOLETE STANDARDS

	KS C 5601-1986, KS C 5601-1987, and KS C 5601-1989 are the
same, character-set wise, to KS C 5601-1992. The 1992 edition provides
more material in the form of annexes. KS C 5601-1982, the original
version, enumerated only the 51 basic hangul elements in a one-byte 7-
and 8-bit encoding. This information is still part of KS C 5601-1992,
but in Annex 4.
	There were two earlier multiple-byte standards called KS C
5619-1982 and KIPS. KS C 5619-1982 enumerated 51 hangul elements,
1,316 pre-combined hangul, and 1,672 hanja. KIPS (Korean Information
Processing System) enumerated 2,058 pre-combined hangul and 2,392
hanja. Both have been rendered obsolete by KS C 5601-1987.


2.5: CJK

	The only true CJK character sets available today are CCCII,
ANSI Z39.64-1989 (also known as EACC or REACC), and ISO 10646-1:1993.
ISO 10646-1:1993 is unique in that it goes beyond CJK (Chinese
characters) to provide virtually all commonly-used alphabetic scripts.
	Of these three, only ISO 10646-1:1993 is expected to gain
wide-spread acceptance. CCCII and ANSI Z39.64-1989 are still used
today, but primarily for bibliographic purposes.


2.5.1: ISO 10646-1:1993

	Published by ISO (International Organization for
Standardization) in Switzerland, this character set enumerates over
34,000 characters. Its I-zone ("I" stands for "Ideograph") enumerates
approximately 21,000 Chinese characters, which is the result of a
massive effort by the CJK-JRG (CJK Joint Research Group) called "Han
Unification." The CJK-JRG is now called the IRG (Ideographic
Rapporteur Group), and is off doing additional research for future
Chinese character allocations to ISO 10646-1:1993.
	The Basic Multilingual Plane (BMP) of ISO 10646-1:1993 is
equivalent to Unicode. While Unicode is comprised of a single plane of
characters (which doesn't allow much room for future expansion), ISO
10646-1:1993 contains hundreds of such planes.
	One very nice feature of this standard's manual are the CJK
code correspondence tables in Section 26 (pp 262-698). Four columns
are provided for each ISO 10646-1:1993 I-zone code point -- simplified
Chinese, traditional Chinese, Japanese, and Korean. If the ISO
10646-1:1993 Chinese character maps to one of these locales, the
hexadecimal character code, (decimal) row-cell value, and glyph for
that locale is provided. The corresponding tables in Volume 2 of "The
Unicode Standard" provide character codes (sometimes the hexadecimal
character code, and sometimes the row-cell value) and a single
glyph. Quite unfortunate. I hear that a new edition of "The Unicode
Standard" is about to be released. I hope that this problem has been
addressed.
	ISO 10646-1:1993 does not replace existing national character
set standards. It simply provides a single character set that is a
superset of *most* national character sets. For example, only a
fraction of the 48,027 hanzi in CNS 11643-1992 are included in ISO
10646-1:1993. I feel that it is best to think of ISO 10646-1:1993 as
"just another character set." My philosophy is to support the maximum
number of character sets and encodings as possible.
	A note about ordering this standard. If you order through ANSI
in the United States, try to get an original manual. It is not easy,
though. You see, ANSI has duplication rights for ISO documents.
Photocopying Section 26 (pp 262-698) doesn't do the Chinese characters
much justice, and some characters become hard-to-read. Unfortunately,
there is no way to indicate that you want an original ISO document
through ANSI's ordering process, so some post-ordering haggling may
become necessary.
	More information on ISO 10646-1:1993 can be found at the
following URL:

  http://www.unicode.org/

	Japan, China (PRC), and Korea have developed their own
national standards that are based on ISO 10646-1:1993. They are
designated as JIS X 0221-1995 (see Section 2.1.4), GB 13000.1-93 (see
Section 2.2.10), and KS C 5700-1995 (see Section 2.4.5), respectively.
	Note that these national-standard versions of Unicode are
aligned differently with its three versions:

  Unicode Version 1.0
  Unicode Version 1.1 <-> ISO 10646-1:1993, JIS X 0221-1995, GB 13000.1-93
  Unicode Version 2.0 <-> KS C 5700-1995

One of the major changes made for Unicode Version 2.0 is the inclusion
of all 11,172 hangul. Versions 1.1 has 6,656 hangul.


2.5.2: CCCII

	The Chinese Character Analysis Group in Taiwan developed CCCII
(Chinese Character Code for Information Interchange) in the 1980s.
This character set is composed of 94 planes that have 94 rows and 94
cells (94 x 94 x 94 = 830,584 characters). Furthermore, every six
planes constitute a "layer" (6 x 94 x 94 = 53,016 characters). The
following is the contents of each of the 16 layers (the 16th layer
contains only four planes):

o Layer 1: Symbols and Traditional Chinese characters
o Layer 2: Simplified Chinese characters from PRC
o Layers 3 through 12: Variant Chinese character forms
o Layer 13: Japanese kana and kokuji (Japanese-made kanji)
o Layer 14: Korean hangul
o Layer 15: Reserved
o Layer 16: Miscellaneous characters (Japanese and Korean)

	Layers 1 through 12 have a special meaning and relationship.
The same code point in these layers is designed to hold the same
character, but with different forms. Layer 1 code points contain the
traditional character forms, Layer 2 code points contain the
simplified character forms (if any), and Layers 3 through 12 contain
variant character forms (if any). For example, given a Chinese
character with three forms, its encoding and arrangement may be as
follows:

  Character Form  Code Point  Layer
  ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^  ^^^^^^^^^^  ^^^^^
  Traditional     0x224E41    1
  Simplified      0x284E41    2
  Variant         0x2E4E41    3

Note how the second and third bytes (0x4E41) are identical in all
three instances -- only the first byte's value, which indicates the
layer, differs. Needless to say, this method of arrangement provides
easy access to related Chinese character forms. No wonder it is used
for bibliographic purposes.
	The first layer is composed as follows:

o Plane 1/Row 2: 56 mathematical symbols
o Plane 1/Row 3: The ASCII character set
o Plane 1/Row 11: 35 Chinese punctuation marks
o Plane 1/Rows 12 through 14: 214 classical radicals
o Plane 1/Row 15: 41 Chinese numerical symbols, 37 phonetic symbols,
  and 4 tone marks
o Plane 1/Rows 16 through 67: 4,808 common Chinese characters
o Plane 1/Row 68 through Plane 3/Row 64: 17,032 less common Chinese
  characters
o Plane 3/Row 65 through Plane 6/Row 5: 20,583 rare Chinese characters

Note that Row 1 of all planes is reserved, and never assigned
characters. Take this into account when studying the above table
ranges that span planes (that is, skip Row 1).
	In addition to the above, there are 11,517 simplified Chinese
characters in Layer 2 (3,625 are considered PRC simplified forms, and
the remaining 7,892 are regular simplified forms). This provides a
total of 53,940 Chinese characters.
	Further information on CCCII (to include very interesting
historical notes) can be found on pp 146-149 of John Clews' "Language
Automation Worldwide: The Development of Character Set Standards" and
Chapter 6 of Huang & Huang's "An Introduction to Chinese, Japanese,
and Korean Computing."


2.5.3: ANSI Z39.64-1989

	This national standard is designated as ANSI Z39.64-1989 and
named "East Asian Character Code" (EACC), but was originally known as
REACC (RLIN East Asian Character Code), that is, before it became a
national standard. RLIN stands for "Research Libraries Information
Network," which was developed by the Research Libraries Group (RLG)
located in Mountain View, California.
	RLG's Home Page is at the following URL:

  http://www.rlg.org/

	The structure of ANSI Z39.64-1989 is based on CCCII, but with
a few differences. Many consider it to be superior to and a
replacement for CCCII (see Section 2.5.2).
	The ANSI Z39.64-1989 standard is available through ANSI, but
you should be aware that it is distributed in the form of several
microfiche. Not a terribly useful storage medium these days. I had my
set tranformed into tangible printed pages. You can also obtain this
standard through NISO (National Information Standards Organization)
Press Fulfillment. Their URL is:

  http://www.niso.org/

	EACC has been designated by the Library of Congress as a
character set for use in USMARC (United States MAchine-Readable
Cataloging) records, and is used extensively by East Asian libraries
across North America.
	EACC is also being used in Australia for the National CJK
Project. Check out the following URL for more details:

  http://www.nla.gov.au/1/asian/ncjk/cjkhome.html

	Further information on ANSI Z39.64-1989 (to include very
interesting historical notes) can be found on pp 150-156 of John
Clews' "Language Automation Worldwide: The Development of Character
Set Standards" (although a source at RLG tells me that some of Clews'
facts are wrong) and Chapter 6 of Huang & Huang's "An Introduction to
Chinese, Japanese, and Korean Computing."
	The authoritative paper on EACC is "RLIN East Asian Character
Code and the RLIN CJK Thesaurus" by Karen Smith Yoshimura and Alan
Tucker, published in "Proceedings of the Second Asian-Pacific
Conference on Library Science," May 20-24,1985, Seoul, Korea.


2.6: OTHER

	This section includes character set standards that don't
properly fall under the above sections.


2.6.1: GB 8045-87

	GB 8045-87 is a Mongolian character set standard established
by China (PRC). This standard enumerates 94 Mongolian characters. Of
these 94 characters, 12 are punctuation (vertically-oriented), and the
remaining 82 are characters specific to the Mongolian script.
Mongolian is written vertically like Chinese.
	I do not discuss the encoding for GB 8045-87 in Part 3, so
will do it here. The GB 8045-87 manual describes a 7- and 8-bit
encoding. The 7-bit encoding puts these 94 characters in the standard
ASCII printable range, namely 0x21 through 0x7E. Code point 0x20 is
marked as "MSP" which stands for "Mongolian space." The 8-bit encoding
puts these 94 characters in the range 0xA1 through 0xFE, with the
"MSP" character at code point 0xA0. The GB 1988-89 set is then encoded
in the range 0x21 through 0x7E.


2.6.2: TCVN-5773:1993

	TCVN-5773:1993 (also called NSCII, which is short for Nom
Standard Code for Information Interchange) is the Vietnamese analog to
ISO 10646-1:1993, but adds 1,775 Vietnamese-specific Chinese
characters. These 1,775 characters are encoded in the range 0xA000
through 0xA6EE.
	More information on TCVN-5773:1993 can be found at the
following URL:

  ftp://unicode.org/pub/MappingTables/EastAsiaMaps/

There are two files at the above URL that pertain to this standard.
The first is a README, and the second is a Macintosh HyperCard stack
(requires HyperCard):

  TCVN-NSCII.README
  TCVN-NSCIIstack_1.0.sea.hqx


PART 3: CJK ENCODING SYSTEMS

	These sections describe the various systems for encoding the
character set standards listed in Part 2. The first two described,
7-bit ISO 2022 and EUC, are not specific to a locale, and in some
cases not specific to CJK.
	The CJK Character Set Server at the following URL can generate
character sets based on encodings described in this section:

  http://jasper.ora.com/lunde/cjk-char.html

I suggest that you use this as a way to obtain files that illustrate
these encodings in action.
	But first, please take a peek at the following table, which is
an attempt to illustrate how two Chinese characters (that stand for
"kanji/hanzi/hanja") are encoded using the various methods presented
in the following sections (character codes as hexadecimal digits, and
escape sequences or shift sequences as printable characters):

o Japanese (JIS X 0208-1990 & JIS X 0201-1976):
  - 7-bit ISO 2022        <ESC> & @ <ESC> $ B 0x3441 0x3B7A <ESC> ( J
  - ISO-2022-JP           <ESC> $ B 0x3441 0x3B7A <ESC> ( J
  - EUC                   0xB4C1 0xBBFA
  - Shift-JIS             0x8ABF 0x8E9A

o Simplified Chinese (GB 2312-80 & GB 1988-89 or ASCII):
  - 7-bit ISO 2022        <ESC> $ A 0x3A3A 0x5756 <ESC> ( T
  - ISO-2022-CN           <ESC> $ ) A <SO> 0x3A3A 0x5756 <SI>
  - EUC                   0xBABA 0xD7D6
  - HZ (HZ-GB-2312)       ~{ 0x3A3A 0x5756 ~}
  - zW                    zW 0x3A3A 0x5756

o Traditional Chinese (CNS 11643-1992):
  - 7-bit ISO 2022        <ESC> $ ( G 0x6947 0x4773 <ESC> ( B
  - ISO-2022-CN           <ESC> $ ) G <SO> 0x6947 0x4773 <SI>
  - EUC                   0xE9C7 0xC7F3 or 0x8EA1E9C7 0x8EA1C7F3

o Traditional Chinese (Big Five):
  - Big Five              0xBA7E 0xA672

o Korean (KS C 5601-1992 & ASCII):
  - 7-bit ISO 2022        <ESC> $ ( C 0x7953 0x6D2E <ESC> ( B
  - ISO-2022-KR           <ESC> $ ) C <SO> 0x7953 0x6D2E <SI>
  - EUC                   0xF9D3 0xEDAE
  - Johab                 0xF7D3 0xF1AE

o CJK (ISO 10646-1:1993, JIS X 0221-1995, GB 13000.1-93, or KS C
  5700-1995):
  - UCS-2                 0x6F22 0x5B57
  - UCS-4                 0x00006F22 0x00005B57

The above should have given you a taste of what information the
following sections provide.


3.1: 7-BIT ISO 2022 ENCODING

	7-bit ISO 2022 is the name commonly given to the encoding
system that uses escape sequences to shift between character sets.
(ISO 2022 encoded Japanese text is also known as "JIS" encoding, but
is different from ISO-2022-JP and ISO-2022-JP-2, and will be explained
in Section 3.1.3.) This encoding comes from the ISO 2022-1993
standard.
	An escape sequence, as the name implies, consists of an escape
character followed by a sequence of one or more characters. These
escape sequences are used to change character set of the text
stream. This may also mean a shift from one- to two-byte-per-character
mode (or vice versa).
	7-bit ISO 2022 Character sets fall into two types: one-byte
and two-byte. CJK character sets, for obvious reasons, fall into the
latter group.
	One advantage that 7-bit ISO 2022 encoding has over other
encoding systems is that its escape sequences specify the character
set, thus specify the locale. 7-bit ISO 2022 encoding also encodes
text using only seven-bit bytes, which has the benefit of being able
to survive Internet travel (e-mail).


3.1.1: CODE SPACE

	Each byte in the representation of graphic (printable)
characters fall into the range 0x21 (decimal 33) through 0x7E (decimal
126). For one-byte character sets, this means a maximum of 94
characters. For two-byte character sets, this means a maximum of 8,836
characters (94 x 94 = 8,836).

  One-byte Characters                           Encoding Range
  ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^                           ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
  first byte range                              0x21-0x7E

  Two-byte Characters                           Encoding Range
  ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^                           ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
  first byte range                              0x21-0x7E
  second byte range                             0x21-0x7E

White space and control characters (of which the "escape" character is
one) are still found in 0x00-0x20 and 0x7F.


3.1.2: ISO-REGISTERED ESCAPE SEQUENCES

	The following is a table that provides the ISO-registered
escape sequences for various one- and two-byte character sets
mentioned in Part 2 of this document (ISO registration numbers
provided in the fourth column):

  One-byte Character Set  Escape Sequence      Hexadecimal     ISO Reg
  ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^  ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^      ^^^^^^^^^^^     ^^^^^^^
  ASCII (ANSI X3.4-1986)  <ESC> ( B            0x1B2842        6
  Half-width katakana     <ESC> ( I            0x1B2849        13
  JIS X 0201-1976 Roman   <ESC> ( J            0x1B284A        14
  GB 1988-89 Roman        <ESC> ( T            0x1B2854        57

  Two-byte Character Set  Escape Sequence      Hexadecimal     ISO Reg
  ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^  ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^      ^^^^^^^^^^^     ^^^^^^^
  JIS C 6226-1978         <ESC> $ @            0x1B2440        42
  GB 2312-80              <ESC> $ A            0x1B2441        58
  JIS X 0208-1983         <ESC> $ B            0x1B2442        87
  KS C 5601-1992          <ESC> $ ( C          0x1B242843      149
  JIS X 0212-1990         <ESC> $ ( D          0x1B242844      159
  ISO-IR-165:1992         <ESC> $ ( E          0x1B242845      165
  JIS X 0208-1990         <ESC> & @ <ESC> $ B  0x1B26401B2442  168
  CNS 11643-1992 Plane 1  <ESC> $ ( G          0x1B242847      171
  CNS 11643-1992 Plane 2  <ESC> $ ( H          0x1B242848      172
  CNS 11643-1992 Plane 3  <ESC> $ ( I          0x1B242849      183
  CNS 11643-1992 Plane 4  <ESC> $ ( J          0x1B24284A      184
  CNS 11643-1992 Plane 5  <ESC> $ ( K          0x1B24284B      185
  CNS 11643-1992 Plane 6  <ESC> $ ( L          0x1B24284C      186
  CNS 11643-1992 Plane 7  <ESC> $ ( M          0x1B24284D      187

Note that the first four two-byte character sets do not use an opening
parenthesis (0x28 or "(") in their escape sequences, which means that
they don't follow the 7-bit ISO 2022 rules precisely. They are shorter
for historical reasons, and are retained for backwards compatibility.
Also note that not all of the CJK character set standards described in
Part 2 have ISO-registered escape sequences.
	There are other encoding methods that are similar to 7-bit ISO
2022 in that they are suitable for Internet use, but are locale-
specific. These include HZ and zW encoding, both of which are specific
to the GB 2312-80 character set (see Sections 3.3.2 and 3.3.3).
ISO-2022-JP, ISO-2022-KR, ISO-2022-CN, and ISO-2022-CN-EXT are
described below.


3.1.3: ISO-2022-JP AND ISO-2022-JP-2

	ISO-2022-JP is best described as a subset of 7-bit ISO 2022
encoding for Japanese, and reflects how Japanese text is encoded for
e-mail messages. ISO-2022-JP-2 is an extension that supports
additional character sets.
	There are only four escape sequences permitted in ISO-2022-JP,
indicated as follows:

  One-byte Character Set  Escape Sequence      Hexadecimal
  ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^  ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^      ^^^^^^^^^^^
  ASCII (ANSI X3.4-1986)  <ESC> ( B            0x1B2842
  JIS X 0201-1976 Roman   <ESC> ( J            0x1B284A

  Two-byte Character Set  Escape Sequence      Hexadecimal
  ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^  ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^      ^^^^^^^^^^^
  JIS C 6226-1978         <ESC> $ @            0x1B2440
  JIS X 0208-1983         <ESC> $ B            0x1B2442

Note the lack of JIS X 0208-1990, JIS X 0212-1990, and half-width
katakana escape sequences. The JIS X 0208-1983 escape sequence is used
to indicate both JIS X 0208-1983 and JIS X 0208-1990 (for practical
reasons).
	ISO-2022-JP-2 permits additional escape sequences, indicated
as follows:

  One-byte Character Set  Escape Sequence      Hexadecimal
  ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^  ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^      ^^^^^^^^^^^
  ASCII (ANSI X3.4-1986)  <ESC> ( B            0x1B2842
  JIS X 0201-1976 Roman   <ESC> ( J            0x1B284A

  Two-byte Character Set  Escape Sequence      Hexadecimal
  ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^  ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^      ^^^^^^^^^^^
  JIS C 6226-1978         <ESC> $ @            0x1B2440
  JIS X 0208-1983         <ESC> $ B            0x1B2442
  JIS X 0212-1990         <ESC> $ ( D          0x1B242844
  GB 2312-80              <ESC> $ A            0x1B2441
  KS C 5601-1992          <ESC> $ ( C          0x1B242843

With the introduction of ISO-2022-KR (see Section 3.1.4), ISO-2022-CN
(see Section 3.1.5), and ISO-2022-CN-EXT (see Section 3.1.5), the
usefulness of supporting GB 2312-80 and KS C 5601-1992 can be
questioned. However, ISO-2022-JP-2 provides support for JIS X
0212-1990.
	More detailed information on ISO-2022-JP encoding can be found
in RFC 1468. And, more detailed information on ISO-2022-JP-2 encoding
can be found in RFC 1554.


3.1.4: ISO-2022-KR

	ISO-2022-KR is similar to ISO-2022-JP (see Section 3.1.3) in
that it reflects how Korean text is encoded for e-mail messages.
However, its actual implementation is a bit different. Below is a
summary.
	There are only two shift sequences used in ISO-2022-KR,
indicated as follows:

  One-byte Character Set  Shift Sequence       Hexadecimal
  ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^  ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^       ^^^^^^^^^^^
  ASCII (ANSI X3.4-1986)  <SI>                 0x0F

  Two-byte Character Set  Shift Sequence       Hexadecimal
  ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^  ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^       ^^^^^^^^^^^
  KS C 5601-1992          <SO>                 0x0E

Furthermore, the following designator sequence must appear only once,
at the beginning of a line, before any KS C 5601-1992 characters (this
usually means that it appears by itself on the first line of the
file):

  <ESC> $ ) C             0x1B242943

It almost looks the same as the KS C 5601-1992 escape sequence in
7-bit ISO 2022, but look again. The opening parenthesis (0x28 or "(")
is replaced by a closing parenthesis (0x29 or ")"). This designator
sequence serves a different purpose than an escape sequence. It is
like a flag indicating that "this document contains KS C 5601-1992
characters." The <SO> and <SI> control characters actually perform the
switching between one- (ASCII) and two-byte (KS C 5601-1992) codes.
	More detailed information on ISO-2022-KR encoding can be found
in RFC 1557.


3.1.5: ISO-2022-CN AND ISO-2022-CN-EXT

	ISO-2022-CN and ISO-2022-CN-EXT are similar to ISO-2022-JP
(see Section 3.1.3) and ISO-2022-KR (see Section 3.1.4) in that they
reflect how Chinese text is encoded for e-mail messages.
	Like with ISO-2022-KR, there are only two shift sequences,
indicated as follows:

  One-byte Character Set  Shift Sequence       Hexadecimal
  ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^  ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^       ^^^^^^^^^^^
  ASCII (ANSI X3.4-1986)  <SI>                 0x0F

  Two-byte Character Set  Shift Sequence       Hexadecimal
  ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^  ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^       ^^^^^^^^^^^
  <Too Many to List>      <SO>                 0x0E

But, unlike ISO-2022-KR, there are single shift sequences. Single
shift means that they are used before every (single) character, not
before sequences of characters.

  Single Shift Type       Shift Sequence       Hexadecimal
  ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^       ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^       ^^^^^^^^^^^
  SS2                     <ESC> N              0x1B4E
  SS3                     <ESC> O (not zero!)  0x1B4F

	ISO-2022-CN supports the following character sets using SO and
SS2 designations:

  Character Set           Type   Designation Sequence  Hexadecimal
  ^^^^^^^^^^^^^           ^^^^   ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^  ^^^^^^^^^^^
  GB 2312-80              SO     <ESC> $ ) A           0x1B242941
  CNS 11643-1992 Plane 1  SO     <ESC> $ ) G           0x1B242947
  CNS 11643-1992 Plane 2  SS2    <ESC> $ * H           0x1B242A48

The designator sequences must appear once on a line before any
instance of the character set it designates. If two lines contain
characters from the same character set, both lines must include the
designator sequence (this is so the text can be displayed correctly
when scroll back in a window). This is different behavior from
ISO-2022-KR where the designator sequence appears once in the entire
file (this is because ISO-2022-KR supports a single two-byte character
set).
	ISO-2022-CN-EXT supports the following character sets using
SO, SS2, and SS3 designations (notice how ISO-2022-CN is still
supported in the same manner):

  Character Set           Type   Designation Sequence  Hexadecimal
  ^^^^^^^^^^^^^           ^^^^   ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^  ^^^^^^^^^^^
  GB 2312-80              SO     <ESC> $ ) A           0x1B242941
  GB/T 12345-90           SO     NOT REGISTERED
  ISO-IR-165              SO     <ESC> $ ) E           0x1B242945
  CNS 11643-1992 Plane 1  SO     <ESC> $ ) G           0x1B242947
  CNS 11643-1992 Plane 2  SS2    <ESC> $ * H           0x1B242A48
  GB 7589-87              SS2    NOT REGISTERED
  GB/T 13131-9X           SS2    NOT REGISTERED
  CNS 11643-1992 Plane 3  SS3    <ESC> $ + I           0x1B242B49
  CNS 11643-1992 Plane 4  SS3    <ESC> $ + J           0x1B242B4A
  CNS 11643-1992 Plane 5  SS3    <ESC> $ + K           0x1B242B4B
  CNS 11643-1992 Plane 6  SS3    <ESC> $ + L           0x1B242B4C
  CNS 11643-1992 Plane 7  SS3    <ESC> $ + M           0x1B242B4D
  GB 7590-87              SS3    NOT REGISTERED
  GB/T 13132-9X           SS3    NOT REGISTERED

Support for character sets indicated as NOT REGISTERED will be added
once they are ISO-registered.
	More detailed information on ISO-2022-CN and ISO-2022-CN-EXT
encodings can be found in RFC 1922.


3.2: EUC ENCODING

	EUC stands for "Extended UNIX Code," and is a rich encoding
system from ISO 2022-1993 that is designed to handle large or multiple
character sets. It is primarily used on UNIX systems, such as Sun's
Solaris.
	EUC consists of four codes sets, numbered 0 through 3. The
only code set that is more or less fixed by definition is code set 0,
which is specified to contain ASCII or a locale's equivalent (such as
JIS X 0201-1976 for Japanese or GB 1988-89 for PRC Chinese).
	It is quite common to append the locale name to "EUC" when
designating a specific instance of EUC encoding. Common designations
include EUC-JP, EUC-CN, EUC-KR, and EUC-TW.


3.2.1: JAPANESE REPRESENTATION

	The following table illustrates the Japanese representation of
EUC packed format:

  EUC Code Sets                                 Encoding Range
  ^^^^^^^^^^^^^                                 ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
  Code set 0 (ASCII or JIS X 0201-1976 Roman):  0x21-0x7E
  Code set 1 (JIS X 0208):                      0xA1A1-0xFEFE
  Code set 2 (half-width katakana):             0x8EA1-0x8EDF
  Code set 3 (JIS X 0212-1990):                 0x8FA1A1-0x8FFEFE

An earlier version of EUC for Japanese used code set 3 as the user-
defined range.


3.2.2: CHINESE (PRC) REPRESENTATION

	The following table illustrates the Chinese (PRC)
representation of EUC packed format:

  EUC Code Sets                                 Encoding Range
  ^^^^^^^^^^^^^                                 ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
  Code set 0 (ASCII or GB 1988-89):             0x21-0x7E
  Code set 1 (GB 2312-80):                      0xA1A1-0xFEFE
  Code set 2:                                   unused
  Code set 3:                                   unused

Note how code sets 2 and 3 are unused.
	The encoding used on Macintosh is quite similar, but has a
shortened two-byte range (0xA1A1 through 0xFCFE) plus additional
one-byte code points, namely 0x80 ("u" with dieresis), 0xFD
("copyright" symbol: "c" in a circle), 0xFE ("trademark" symbol: "TM"
as a superscript), and 0xFF ("ellipsis" symbol: three dots).


3.2.3: CHINESE (TAIWAN) REPRESENTATION

	The following table illustrates the Chinese (Taiwan)
representation of EUC packed format:

  EUC Code Sets                                 Encoding Range
  ^^^^^^^^^^^^^                                 ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
  Code set 0 (ASCII):                           0x21-0x7E
  Code set 1 (CNS 11643-1992 Plane 1):          0xA1A1-0xFEFE
  Code set 2 (CNS 11643-1992 Planes 1-16):      0x8EA1A1A1-0x8EB0FEFE
  Code set 3:                                   unused

Note how CNS 11643-1992 Plane 1 is redundantly encoded in code set 1
(two-byte) and code set 2 (four-byte). The second byte of code set 2
indicates the plane number. For example, 0xA1 is Plane 1 and so on up
until 0xB0, which is Plane 16.


3.2.4: KOREAN REPRESENTATION

	The following table illustrates the Korean representation of
EUC packed format (this is also known as "Wansung" encoding -- the
Korean word "wansung" means "pre-compose"):

  EUC Code Sets                                 Encoding Range
  ^^^^^^^^^^^^^                                 ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
  Code set 0 (ASCII or KS C 5636-1993):         0x21-0x7E
  Code set 1 (KS C 5601-1992):                  0xA1A1-0xFEFE
  Code set 2:                                   unused
  Code set 3:                                   unused

Note how code sets 2 and 3 are unused.
	The encoding used on Macintosh is quite similar, but has a
shortened two-byte range (0xA1A1 through 0xFDFE) plus additional
one-byte code points, namely 0x81 ("won" symbol), 0x82 (hyphen), 0x83
("copyright" symbol: "c" in a circle), 0xFE ("trademark" symbol: "TM"
as a superscript), and 0xFF ("ellipsis" symbol: three dots).
	See Section 3.3.17 for a description of Microsoft's extension
to this encoding, called Unified Hangul Code.


3.3: LOCALE-SPECIFIC ENCODINGS

	The encoding systems described in the following sections are
considered to be locale-specific, namely that are used to encode a
specific character set standard. This is not to say that they are not
widely used (actually, some of these are among the most widely used
encoding systems!), but rather that they are tied to a specific
character set.


3.3.1: SHIFT-JIS

	Shift-JIS (also known as MS Kanji, SJIS, or DBCS-PC) is the
encoding system used on machines that support MS-DOS or Windows, and
also for Macintosh (KanjiTalk or Japanese Language Kit). It was