Commit cb49e3ca authored by Nicholas Adams's avatar Nicholas Adams
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fixing markdown

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::: {.section data-type="chapter" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml"}
Data\'s Day of Reckoning Data\'s Day of Reckoning
======================== ========================
...@@ -40,7 +39,6 @@ professional societies were formed to maintain and enforce codes of ...@@ -40,7 +39,6 @@ professional societies were formed to maintain and enforce codes of
conduct; government regulatory processes have established standards and conduct; government regulatory processes have established standards and
penalties for work that is detrimental to society. penalties for work that is detrimental to society.
::: {.section data-type="sect1"}
Ethics and Security Training Ethics and Security Training
============================ ============================
...@@ -111,9 +109,7 @@ boot camps. They can't remain abstract, but need to be coupled with ...@@ -111,9 +109,7 @@ boot camps. They can't remain abstract, but need to be coupled with
And training can't stop upon graduation. Employers need to host regular And training can't stop upon graduation. Employers need to host regular
forums and offer refresher courses to keep people up-to-date on the forums and offer refresher courses to keep people up-to-date on the
latest challenges and perspectives. latest challenges and perspectives.
:::
::: {.section data-type="sect1"}
Developing Guiding Principles Developing Guiding Principles
============================= =============================
...@@ -159,9 +155,7 @@ discussion. They're a great start for any group that wants to create its ...@@ -159,9 +155,7 @@ discussion. They're a great start for any group that wants to create its
own checklist. And Cathy O'Neil has proposed own checklist. And Cathy O'Neil has proposed
[auditing](http://bit.ly/2uQUUf3) machine learning algorithms for [auditing](http://bit.ly/2uQUUf3) machine learning algorithms for
fairness. fairness.
:::
::: {.section data-type="sect1"}
Building Ethics into a Data-Driven Culture Building Ethics into a Data-Driven Culture
========================================== ==========================================
...@@ -187,9 +181,9 @@ Ethical thinking is important with or without corporate support, but ...@@ -187,9 +181,9 @@ Ethical thinking is important with or without corporate support, but
it's more likely to make a difference when ethical action is a corporate it's more likely to make a difference when ethical action is a corporate
value. Here are some ideas for building ethics into culture: value. Here are some ideas for building ethics into culture:
An individual needs to be empowered to stop the process before damage is done. _An individual needs to be empowered to stop the process before damage is done._
: Toyota and [W. Edwards Toyota and [W. Edwards
Deming](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/W._Edwards_Deming) pioneered Deming](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/W._Edwards_Deming) pioneered
the use of the [andon the use of the [andon
cord](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Andon_(manufacturing)) to cord](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Andon_(manufacturing)) to
...@@ -198,15 +192,15 @@ An individual needs to be empowered to stop the process before damage is done. ...@@ -198,15 +192,15 @@ An individual needs to be empowered to stop the process before damage is done.
well as production line operators would then discuss the issue, make well as production line operators would then discuss the issue, make
improvements, and restart the process. improvements, and restart the process.
Any member of a data team should be able to pull a virtual "andon Any member of a data team should be able to pull a virtual "andon
cord," stopping production, whenever they see an issue. The product cord," stopping production, whenever they see an issue. The product
or feature stays offline until the team has a resolution. This way, or feature stays offline until the team has a resolution. This way,
an iterative process can be developed that avoids glossing over an iterative process can be developed that avoids glossing over
issues. issues.
Anyone should be able to escalate issues for remediation without fear of retaliation. _Anyone should be able to escalate issues for remediation without fear of retaliation._
: There needs to be an escalation process for team members who don't There needs to be an escalation process for team members who don't
feel their voice has been heard. The US Department of State has a feel their voice has been heard. The US Department of State has a
[dissent channel](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dissent_Channel) [dissent channel](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dissent_Channel)
where any diplomat can make sure the Secretary of State hears their where any diplomat can make sure the Secretary of State hears their
...@@ -214,7 +208,7 @@ Anyone should be able to escalate issues for remediation without fear of retalia ...@@ -214,7 +208,7 @@ Anyone should be able to escalate issues for remediation without fear of retalia
issues is required by law. For health care plans in the US, there is issues is required by law. For health care plans in the US, there is
a compliance officer who reports directly to the board of directors. a compliance officer who reports directly to the board of directors.
Data-driven organizations need a similar model that allows people to Data-driven organizations need a similar model that allows people to
escalate issues without the fear of reprisal. An escalation process escalate issues without the fear of reprisal. An escalation process
could be implemented in several forms. For example, companies could could be implemented in several forms. For example, companies could
work with an organization such as the Electronic Frontier Foundation work with an organization such as the Electronic Frontier Foundation
...@@ -224,34 +218,34 @@ Anyone should be able to escalate issues for remediation without fear of retalia ...@@ -224,34 +218,34 @@ Anyone should be able to escalate issues for remediation without fear of retalia
could be implemented under an existing or new agency (e.g., a could be implemented under an existing or new agency (e.g., a
Consumer Data Protection Agency). Consumer Data Protection Agency).
An ethical challenge should be part of the hiring process. _An ethical challenge should be part of the hiring process._
: When hiring, companies frequently assess whether a candidate will be When hiring, companies frequently assess whether a candidate will be
a \"cultural fit.\" Interviewers ask questions that help them a \"cultural fit.\" Interviewers ask questions that help them
understand whether a candidate will work well with other team understand whether a candidate will work well with other team
members. However, interviewers rarely ask questions about the members. However, interviewers rarely ask questions about the
candidate's ethical values. candidate's ethical values.
Rather than asking a question with a right/wrong answer, we've found Rather than asking a question with a right/wrong answer, we've found
that it's best to pose a problem that lets us see how the candidate that it's best to pose a problem that lets us see how the candidate
thinks about ethical and security choices. Here's a question we have thinks about ethical and security choices. Here's a question we have
used: used:
> Assume we have a large set of demographic data. We're trying to > Assume we have a large set of demographic data. We're trying to
> evaluate individuals and we're not supposed to use race as an > evaluate individuals and we're not supposed to use race as an
> input. However, you discover a proxy for race with the other > input. However, you discover a proxy for race with the other
> variables. What would you do? > variables. What would you do?
This kind of question can start a dialogue about how to use the This kind of question can start a dialogue about how to use the
proxy variable. What effects does it have on people using the proxy variable. What effects does it have on people using the
product? Are we making recommendations, or deciding whether to product? Are we making recommendations, or deciding whether to
provide services? Are we implementing a legal requirement, or provide services? Are we implementing a legal requirement, or
providing guidance about compliance? Discussing the question and providing guidance about compliance? Discussing the question and
possible answers will reveal the candidate's values. possible answers will reveal the candidate's values.
Product reviews must ask questions about the product's impact. _Product reviews must ask questions about the product's impact._
: Environmental impact statements predict the impact of construction Environmental impact statements predict the impact of construction
projects on the public. We've already mentioned FAT/ML's proposed projects on the public. We've already mentioned FAT/ML's proposed
Social Impact Statements as an example of what might be done for Social Impact Statements as an example of what might be done for
data. In the social sciences and the biomedical industry, data. In the social sciences and the biomedical industry,
...@@ -264,9 +258,9 @@ Product reviews must ask questions about the product's impact. ...@@ -264,9 +258,9 @@ Product reviews must ask questions about the product's impact.
actions before releasing products. We believe that using a checklist actions before releasing products. We believe that using a checklist
is the best approach for ensuring good outcomes. is the best approach for ensuring good outcomes.
Teams must reflect diversity of thought, experiences, race, and background. _Teams must reflect diversity of thought, experiences, race, and background._
: All too often, we hear about products that are culturally All too often, we hear about products that are culturally
insensitive or overtly racist. One [notorious insensitive or overtly racist. One [notorious
example](https://reut.rs/2LzTi0n) is an automated passport control example](https://reut.rs/2LzTi0n) is an automated passport control
system that doesn't let an individual proceed until a good digital system that doesn't let an individual proceed until a good digital
...@@ -284,9 +278,9 @@ Teams must reflect diversity of thought, experiences, race, and background. ...@@ -284,9 +278,9 @@ Teams must reflect diversity of thought, experiences, race, and background.
you're deeply involved with a project, it can be hard to recognize you're deeply involved with a project, it can be hard to recognize
problems that are obvious to outsiders. problems that are obvious to outsiders.
Corporations must make their own principles clear. _Corporations must make their own principles clear._
: Google's "Don't be evil" has always been a cute, but vague, maxim. Google's "Don't be evil" has always been a cute, but vague, maxim.
Their recent statement, [Artificial Intelligence at Google: Our Their recent statement, [Artificial Intelligence at Google: Our
Principles](https://ai.google/principles), is more specific. In a Principles](https://ai.google/principles), is more specific. In a
similar vein, the face recognition startup Kairos has said that they similar vein, the face recognition startup Kairos has said that they
...@@ -295,7 +289,7 @@ Corporations must make their own principles clear. ...@@ -295,7 +289,7 @@ Corporations must make their own principles clear.
use of commercial face recognition in law enforcement or government use of commercial face recognition in law enforcement or government
surveillance of any kind is wrong." surveillance of any kind is wrong."
However, it's important to realize that advocating for corporate However, it's important to realize that advocating for corporate
ethical principles has consequences. Significant internal protest, ethical principles has consequences. Significant internal protest,
and the [resignation of several developers](http://bit.ly/2O5Cgc6) and the [resignation of several developers](http://bit.ly/2O5Cgc6)
in protest over Google's defense contracts, were needed to get their in protest over Google's defense contracts, were needed to get their
...@@ -321,9 +315,9 @@ product, the product development loop is likely to flush out systematic ...@@ -321,9 +315,9 @@ product, the product development loop is likely to flush out systematic
problems with bias and cultural insensitivity. The key is testing the problems with bias and cultural insensitivity. The key is testing the
product on a truly diverse group of users, not just a group that mirrors product on a truly diverse group of users, not just a group that mirrors
the expected customer base or the developers' backgrounds. the expected customer base or the developers' backgrounds.
:::
::: {.section data-type="sect1"}
Regulation Regulation
========== ==========
...@@ -374,9 +368,8 @@ very difficult for IRBs to adapt to new ideas and technologies. It's why ...@@ -374,9 +368,8 @@ very difficult for IRBs to adapt to new ideas and technologies. It's why
the Obama administration pushed for nearly eight years to update the the Obama administration pushed for nearly eight years to update the
Common Rule's models for consent to be consistent with digital Common Rule's models for consent to be consistent with digital
technologies and to enable data mining. technologies and to enable data mining.
:::
::: {.section data-type="sect1"}
Building Our Future Building Our Future
=================== ===================
...@@ -414,5 +407,3 @@ easy---but it's necessary. ...@@ -414,5 +407,3 @@ easy---but it's necessary.
We can build a future we want to live in, or we can build a nightmare. We can build a future we want to live in, or we can build a nightmare.
The choice is up to us. The choice is up to us.
:::
:::
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